The field of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers is known as fiber optics.
With development of Internet technologies, traditional telecommunication system based on copper networks is becomming limited day by day. As a method of transmitting information from one place to another, optical fiber transmission is first developed in 1970s, and quickly expanded in last 30 years, no matter the transmission distance or the area covered.
By sending pulses of light through an optical fiber, fiber-optic communication systems have revolutionized the telecommunications industry and have played a major role in the advent of the Information Age. Because of its advantages over traditional electrical transmission, optical fibers have largely replaced copper wire communications in core networks. Optical fiber is now world widely used to transmit telephone signals, Internet communication, and cable television signals.
The process of communicating using fiber-optics involves the following basic steps:
- Coverting electrical voice, data, and vedio signal into optical signal
- Transmitting optical signal into the fibers
- Relaying the signal along the fiber
- Ensuring that the signal does not become too distorted or weak
- Receiving the optical signal, distributing and converting it into an electrical signal
The fiber optic components related to these process contain optical fiber cables, connectors, adapters, attenuators, couplers, splitters, WDMs, active transmission devices, cable management racks, cabinets, enclosures, and boxes etc.